Events surrounding The Treaty of Hudaybiyya
Dream of the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H)
About a year after the battle of trench, the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) dreamed that he was entering the sacred mosque. The Quran states his dream in Surah al Fatah;
“God indeed fulfilled the vision for his messenger, with you shall certainly enter the sacred Mosque if God pleased in security.” [48:27].
What did the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) do after this Dream?
Since God’s messengers always see true dreams, the Prophet (P.B.U.H) asked his companions to prepare for the Umra (lesser pilgrimage). Accordingly, he set out with 1400-1500 unarmed companions for Makka, all wearing Ihram (the dress for Umra and Hajj) in 6 A.H 628 AD.
All were perfectly unarmed except for an unsheathed sword for self-defense and were carrying 70 camels for sacrifice because their sole aim was pilgrimage.
The Quraysh regarded this as a tactical move of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)
The Quraysh decided to block their entry to Mecca. They moved out of Mecca with weapons. A cavalry was dispatched under Khalid bin Walid and Ikrima to stop the Muslims.
The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) having no intention to fight avoided the main route, and finally, halted at al-Hudaibiya, about a day’s marched to Makkah.
Warning of Quraysh to Muslims
The Quraysh sent Buday bin Waraqa, the Khuza chief, and then Urwa bin Masud, father in-law of Abu Sufiyan to warn the prophet of Qurayshite aim of fighting.
Both were impressed by the devotion and peaceful attire of Muslims.
What was the Reaction of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)?
Moreover, the Holy Prophet sent a messenger to Makkah who did not return. Then Hazrat Uthman was sent but he too was detained and it was rumored that he had been killed. On this thing, the Holy Prophet took the oath from his followers and the Quran refers to this in following words.
“God indeed was pleased with the believers, when they swore allegiance to you under the tree” [48:18]
The holy prophet stood under a tree and extended his hands so that all his followers performed the Bai’yat on his hand. This pledge is known as the “Bai’yat-i-Rizwan” or the oath of Good pleasure.
Soon hazrat Uthman returned and the Makkans sent their leaders for negotiations. Sohail bin Amr and some other tribal chief concluded the Treaty written by Hazrat Ali.
Main terms in the treaty
According to the treaty a truce of 10 years was agreed; both Muslims and Quraysh could make alliance with any other tribe; Muslims were to return that year and come for pilgrimage for the following year; If anyone escaped from Mecca to Medina, the prophet was to send him back to Mecca, but the Quraysh were not bound to return any Muslim to Medina.
The companions were not happy over the terms of the treaty and Hazrat Umar (R.A) expressed his concern rather loudly. The Prophet (P.B.U.H), however, reassured him of God’s help. Shortly after the treaty Abu Jandal s/o Sohail bin Amr reached Hudaibiya and requested the prophet to protect him from the pegans but the Prophet kept his promise and prayed to God to help Abu Jandal.
The prophet on the advice of Hazrat Umm Salama performed the rituals of Umra and at Hudaibiya by sacrificing camels and then set out for Madinah.